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What is multiple sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis (MS): What you should know.

What is multiple sclerosis (multiple sclerosis)?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) or multiple sclerosis, a disease of the brain and spinal cord. The age at which it usually diagnosed is between 20 and 50 years. In CSF the casing that covers the nerves, myelin is destroyed and the nerve is damaged. The role of myelin is very important for the protection and proper functioning of the nerve. It allows quick transfer of nerve messages. When myelin and nerve fibers suffer damage, messages starting from the brain to move for example a member of the body, not transmitted correctly thus creating mobility problem. The same occurs vice versa when messages relating to the sense transferred from one part of the body to the brain.
 
The result is that body movements are slow or unable to coordinate. Also corrupted and the sensory messages to the brain.
After a first attack of the disease can be healed and return to normal operation. However generated a plate, a type of scar within the central nervous system, which can permanently affect the motor and sensory function. The disease can be relapsed with new attacks on myelin which can affect any part of the central nervous system. With this development can generate many plaques, scarring in the brain and spinal cord.

Each patient can present its own unique image depending on where exactly you affected myelin.

Common symptoms of CSF are:
• Weakness or mobility problems
• Pins
• Incontinence of urine or stool
• Lack of coordination of movements
• Loss of balance
• eyesight problems
• Cognitive problems
• mood changes
• Fatigue
• Difficulty speaking

The CSF is not fatal or contagious. However, a small percentage of patients showing severe form of the disease which can reduce life expectancy.

Diagnosis
The diagnosis of CSF is not easy and sometimes it is very difficult. There is no lab test which alone can prove that the patient has or has not been CSF. Some additional tests such as magnetic resonance imaging, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and evoked potentials may provide information to support strongly that there is a disease. The diagnosis made by a neurologist or other physician when there are compelling signs of MS in many parts of the central nervous system.

This is usually possible when the historic least two or more episodes of neurological problems and more than one symptoms. 

For example there may be weakness in one arm and the other leg or weakness in one State to another and numbness or weakness of a member with urinary incontinence.

What causes multiple sclerosis?
We do not know what causes MS. The myelin destruction appears to be due to an immune disorder. The immune system of the body, ie the system with specialized cells and antibodies are responsible for defense against foreign pathogens, due to a pathological mechanism directed against myelin organization itself thereby destroys it.
 
The autoimmune mechanism can be caused by an abnormal response of the immune system following an infection in childhood from a virus or other microorganism
The disease is not hereditary. Although it seems that there is a genetic predisposition because there has been a slight increase in the frequency of disease in close relatives.

What is the outcome of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis? The evolution depends on how often the patient presents the demyelinating episodes and how damaged the brain and spinal cord of. The most common form is one in which patients have episodes of relapse and remission of their disease. Relapses their symptoms are much worse. In recessions improved and their symptoms may disappear completely or partly.

In 75% of cases of patients with CSF begin their disease in this way.
Approximately 15% of patients have from the beginning a progressive disease. Their symptoms do not improve and may worsen. This form is called primary progressive form.
Approximately 6-10% of patients have progressive evolution with acute crises, which is called progressive relapsing CSF and is relatively rare.
Eventually 50% of patients starting with the form presented relapses and remissions, develop after 10 years, secondary progressive CSF. You may continue to have seizures and have some improvement but the symptoms and disabilities that worsen gradually. 

It is important to emphasize that all such forms may be stabilized or deteriorate anytime.
Approximately two thirds of patients with CSF will maintain their mobility during their lifetime. But many of them will require devices for walking (such as a cane) and some will choose the wheelchair or other similar device to save their forces. 

What are the treatments for multiple sclerosis? The treatments used against disease crises are corticosteroids and ACTH. Relapses these drugs can reduce the duration of symptoms.
Also used, and other drugs and therapeutic methods against muscle spasms, against pain and incontinence.
Good nutrition and adequate rest of the organization help significantly. Physical exercise helps in mild to moderate forms of the disease.

There are now other drugs that seem to be able to modify disease progression.
These drugs can reduce the frequency of relapses, slowing the time of establishment of disability and reduce the degenerative effects of CSF as documented on MRI. Drugs such as interferon (Rebif or Betaferon or Avonex) or glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) is recommended in patients who have frequent attacks of the disease, about two each time, especially if they are significant, and if not fully recovering patients after crises.

The patient rehabilitation treatments, physiotherapy the urine-collection and psychological support of patients also have great significance and should not be neglected,

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